By Abraham Mehari Haile
An in-depth overview of the century-old Wadi Laba indigenous spate irrigation process in Eritrea. the program has trusted earthern and brushwood constructions and common water principles to aid subsistence livelihoods of the Wadi Laba groups for lots of years. This study analyses the effectiveness of the advent of contemporary water legislation and a brand new headwork which endevour to extend construction and conventional of dwelling. the inability of good fortune of the hot method, in comparison with conventional equipment of water administration are mentioned.
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Additional resources for A Tradition in Transition, Water Management Reforms and Indigenous Spate Irrigation Systems in Eritrea: PhD, UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education, Delft, The Netherlands
The various tribal leaders and water user groups were consulted and their opinions included before the final version of the rules and regulations were made functional. Locally, the documentation forms of the water distribution rules and the procedures followed in drafting them are called Kulliat-e-Rod-Kohi or Kulliat-eabpaashi. Almost all the spate irrigated areas in Pakistan lie in the most marginalized and socially low-ranking districts. This had a negative impact on the decision-making at the national level 28 A Tradition in Transition: Water Management Reforms and Spate Irrigation Systems in Eritrea as far as resource allocation for the irrigation sector is concerned.
Nullah systems are based on a single nullah (ephemeral stream), usually one with a mountainous catchment; manda systems depend on rivers or large nullahs, which collect water from many small ephemeral streams with quite hilly catchments. Diffuse supply systems utilise large sloping areas as contributing catchments, where the runoff is collected into a shallow nullah by the time it reaches the diversion point. Riverine systems are designed to divert water from perennial streams only when a sufficient flood stage is reached for the water to flow into diversion canals (Hamilton and Muhammad, 1995).
Type I systems consist of temporary structures mainly Ogmas, Obars and Atm. These structures are built from earthen materials and their locations are frequently changed depending on the flood situation. They are very famous and dominant among the farmers in the coastal areas of Tihama. Ogma is an earthen embankment built across the wadi bed to divert the entire flow. Atm is also an earthen bank, but is smaller in size than Ogma and is built in the form of bunds and spurs projecting into the wadis, to divert part of the flow.
A Tradition in Transition, Water Management Reforms and Indigenous Spate Irrigation Systems in Eritrea: PhD, UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education, Delft, The Netherlands by Abraham Mehari Haile