By Christopher Hamlin
A technology of Impurity is the 1st special background of the mobilization of chemistry (and later bacteriology) to fulfill the general public call for for strong water. It additionally bargains a point of view on figuring out how smooth actual sciences are tapped to make sure public strong.
A technological know-how of Impurity explores the social framework within which chemists got here to paintings on difficulties of water caliber, the suggestions they used to check the surroundings, their conclusions and their position in facing a anxious public.
For historians of technology, researchers and planners within the water undefined.
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Additional info for A Science of Impurity: Water Analysis in Nineteenth Century Britain
To admit the inadequacy of analysis would have been to give aid and comfort to such obscurantists. A third reason not to worry was the availability of artificial synthesis of a mineral water as a way of checking the accuracy of analysis. 51 Often the salts found in the residue were hardly soluble in water. Yet despite the difficulties of emulating natural mineral waters, later writers continued to list synthesis as the ideal way to check the results of analysis. Murray's Answer: The Triumph of Skepticism In 1815 the Edinburgh physician and chemist Dr John Murray (to be distinguished only with difficulty from two other contemporary John Murrays who were also chemists) exploded this complacency < previous page page_30 next page > < previous page page_31 next page > Page 31 by proposing that the salts obtained in analysis were not necessarily the salts that existed in solution.
Supplement, 1871, pp 205-13. 44 Bergman, 'Of the Analysis of Waters,' p 109; Meredith Gairdner, Essay on Mineral and Thermal Springs, p 64. v. water, p 44. v. mineral waters; Coley, 'Physicians and the Chemical Analysis of Mineral Waters,' pp 131, 139; John Rutty, An Essay towards a Natural, Experimental, and Medical History of the Mineral Waters of Ireland, p x. 47 Uno Boklund, 'Torbern Bergman as Pioneer in Mineral Waters,' pp 122-4; Partington, A History of Chemistry, III, pp 123-4; Eklund, 'Chemical Analysis,' pp 268-70; Guitard, Prestigieux Passé, pp 108-9; Saunders, Treatise, pp xivxv, 23.
See also Rutty, A Methodical Synopsis of Mineral Waters, p xiv. 67 F L Holmes has pointed to a similar treatment of Berthollet's views during the first half of the century. Without accurate quantitative knowledge of affinities, chemists were unable to predict how mass would affect reactions; they could only assert that traditional affinity relations did not work (Holmes, 'From Elective Affinities to Chemical Equilibria,' pp 111-25; Thomson, History of Chemistry,* II, p 223). 68 J Berzelius, 'Examen chimique des eaux de Carlsbad, de Toplitz, et de Konigswart,' Annales de Chimie et de Physique, 2nd series 28 (1825): 258-60.
A Science of Impurity: Water Analysis in Nineteenth Century Britain by Christopher Hamlin